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Lukas Fujcik, Radimir Vrba, Jan Krejci, Michal Skocdopole, Ondrej Sajdl, Jiri Haze
INPUT CONTROL OF SENSOR PARAMETERS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SENSOR MEASUREMENT

Fast detection of pesticide toxicity in the field conditions is very important in many aspects (longtime influence of low concentrations on man´s health, pesticide storage, price of one test etc.). The pesticide concentration measurements are performed on a biosensor with acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The AChE is a very sensitive compound. The measurement uses principle of an artificial synapse (AS) and inhibition of an enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The AS is a very effective detector of the pesticide toxicity. Therefore properties of the sensor have to be measured without AChE at first. This process is called input control of the sensor. The reproducibility of electrochemical detector is studied first using hydrogen peroxide and second ferri-ferrokyanide redox couple. The parameters of electrochemical detector itself were evaluated statistically.

Gregorio Andria, Giuseppe Cavone, Vincenzo Di Lecce, Anna M. L. Lanzolla
MATHEMATIC MODEL FOR MEASUREMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR POLLUTION IN AREAS WITH HIGH ROAD-TRAFFIC LEVELS

The paper deals with measurement and behaviour characterization of the main substances influencing air pollution in an urban area with high road traffic level. To this aim, the correlation existing between some pollutants is identified and a mathematic model able to forecast and describe the time varying behaviour of contaminating substances is implemented. Finally, some information about reliability degree of estimate is provided.

Dubravka Doležal, Tatjana Tomic
VALIDATION PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON IN WATER

The determination of total organic carbon (TOC) content in water is useful as a measure of pollution. It is an analytical process which is validated and it demonstrates that it is suitable for its intended purpose. Several validation parameters are done to conduct validation procedures.

Francesco Adamo, Gregorio Andria, Filippo Attivissimo, Nicola Giaquinto
A STUDY OF THE MOISTURE EFFECTS ON THE ACOUSTIC WAVES

This paper focuses on the study of a mathematical model to measure the moisture content of agricultural soils. After the proposal and analysis of a measurement method based on the propagation of elastic waves in a granular unconsolidated medium, a mathematical relationship between the propagation velocity of an acoustic wave and the moisture content of the soil is obtained. The authors carefully study and verify the conditions that guarantee the applicability of the model; the analysis shows that a right choice of the frequency of the transmitted signal allows the applicability of the model to a wide range of agricultural soils.

Zeyi Zhou, Yadong Yu
STUDY OF COMPUTER CONTROL DYNAMIC VOLUMETRIC METHODS AND PREPARATION OF WATER CALLIBRATION GASES

A new type apparatus of dynamic volumetric calibration system was designed and made in correspond with ISO 6145. The main parameters of dynamic volumetric method can be monitored recorded and calculated by a personal computer. The calibration gases of water in nitrogen with ranges of 10-7~10-6 mol/mol were prepared in the form of diffusion tubes by dynamic volumetric method. Test in comparison with a standard dew point apparatus expressed that the water diffusion tubes are reliable and accurate, and the uncertainties of the calibration gases of water in nitrogen are in the ranges of 3%~4%.

Peter Princz, József Oláh, Scot Smith, Kirk Hatfield
COMPLEX ANALYTICAL PROCEDURE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATON OF MODIFIED ZEOLIZE AND FOR THE ASSESSMENT ITS EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Under a joint US-Hungarian R&D project financed by the NATO Science for Peace Programme an innovative zeolite modification method and a wastewater treatment technology based on the application of zeolite modified with cation active polyelectrolyte (CAP) were developed between 1999 and 2002.
In order to determine the chemical composition and the stability of the CAP modified zeolite (SMZ), as well as predict its effects on the biological treatment of wastewater, total organic carbon (TOC), Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements, as well as laboratory and pilot scale biological degradability tests were carried out.
The data of TOC and IR measurements showed that using the patented zeolite modification method 1-3 mg CAP could be chemically attached to the surface of 1 g natural zeolite of 100 µm grain size. The stability test of SMZ showed that 93% of the CAP-zeolites bonds remained stable at even pH 9 after 3 days.
The pilot scale experiments in harmony with the laboratory ones applying SMZ resulted in significantly better effluent water quality and verified that SMZ additive was capable to increase the capacity of WTPs expressed in chemical oxygen demand (5-40%), biochemical oxygen demand (50-40%), organic nitrogen removal (40-70%), ammonical-nitrogen removal (50-80%), phosphorous removal (15-20%) and suspended solids removal (30-40%).

Leo Van Biesen, Zobeida Cisneros, Tesfa Ghebreegziabeber
ON THE APPLICATION OF THE POWER OF GIS TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS FOR THE MONITORING, EXPLOITATION AND SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

Interest in sustainable environmental management of marine ecosystems is nowadays increasing rapidly as a result of the dramatic extending of man’s economic activity in the vicinity of coasts, estuaries and deeper waters of the shelf edge and continental slope. Therefore, one needs to model the marine environment by setting up measurement procedures for evaluating natural and human impacts, which requires an interdisciplinary approach on multiple levels in order to predict its evolution with respect to environmental protection and the conservation of natural resources.
Remotely sensed oceanographic measurements in conjunction with geographic information system (GIS) may be a useful tool for defining strategies, for the monitoring of marine ecosystems over time and space and for the efficient updating of the marine environmental information. The GIS in marine ecosystems enables to integrate all relevant multilayer, spatial and temporal data acquired from the investigated marine environment, viz. high resolution bathymetry, characterisation of seabed, sediments and near sub-bottom, and the capability to query and display information for monitoring effectiveness.
This paper will outline through two examples of the potential use and application of GIS in monitoring, exploitation and sustainable environmental management of marine ecosystems. Some obtained results validate the suitability of GIS for this purpose.

Jacek Wyszkowski, Ludwik Spiralski, Romuald Winter
DIGITAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES AND AUDIBLE NOISE OF MARINE FREQUENCY CONTROLLED AC DRIVES

Digital measurement system of electromagnetic disturbances and audible noise of marine drive systems with frequency converters is described. This measurement system allows establishing the synonymous and rational correlation, between electromagnetic disturbances in AC motor supply line and audible noise of the drive system. Thanks to this method, the audible noise reduction can be obtained by attenuation of motor electrical supply harmonics.

Stefano de Falco, Nicola Pasquino
A NEW APPROACH TO UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS THROUGH QUALITY ASSURANCE TECHNIQUES

Assessment of risks connected with exposure to electromagnetic fields at either low or radio frequencies requires appropriate evaluation of the value read on probe’s display – whose variability depends on both EM field and measurement system – with respect to the actual value of the underlying monitored process. That can be accomplished through a statistical investigation about whether the overcome of reference limits which can possibly have happened is merely a transient effect of measurement uncertainty which sums up with random process variation, or rather a more serious stable condition which calls for countermeasures.
To that end, it is required that the probability distribution of the monitored process be obtained from the set of measured data, which can be done by taking out of them the fluctuation due to measurement itself. Such methodology falls under the generic name of deconvolution, after the operation used to separate the two contributions, and requires a preliminary measurement campaign for the evaluation of the statistical distribution of data. This paper presents the mentioned methodology and provides an example pertaining the evaluation of the electromagnetic field in urban area.

Wieslaw Kicinski
PROCESSING OF MEASURING SIGNALS FOR MONITORING OF TRANSIENTS IN UNDERWATER ENVIRONMENT

The problem of processing of the class of measuring signals, so called transient signals, caused by shocks of the oxygen tank of diver has been discussed. The method of transient signals processing based on wavelet transform and multivariate data analysis has been described.

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