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Maurizio Delli Santi
The digital database of dovecote towers in Salento (Southern Italy)

The potential of GIS applications has been successfully applied in the most diverse fields for years, starting from urban planning to geology, from agriculture to cultural heritage, and from engineering to architecture. Through GIS systems, territorial information can be entered in a single container that allows not only to save and preserve them but also to study and process them. This GIS for the systematic filing of the dovecotes present in Salento in Puglia, implements GIS analysis technologies. With them the common characteristics of the architectures are immediately highlighted, thus creating tables which, converted into special formats, dynamically connect the artefacts and the thematic segments: a precious source for an innovative analysis tool, in terms of conservative recovery and subsequent enhancement of the entire system of dovecotes present in Salento.

Vincenzo Di Fiore, Michele Punzo, Daniela Tarallo, Maria Elisa Amadasi, Giovanni Leucci
Geophysical surveys at the Roman Aqueduct Aqua Virgo (Roma, Italy)

Aqua Virgo is the oldest Roman aqueduct still functioning in the city of Rome. It has never stopped working and still today it supplies some of the most famous fountains of the capital. The aqueduct was inaugurated in 19 B.C. and presents an almost entirely subterranean route. Geophysical measurements were undertaken with the aims to acquire further data about the water intake system of Aqua Virgo in Salone. The ancient aqueduct did not catch the water only from one single source but from a complex of springs and feeder channels located in the area. This project intents to bring light on the possible connections between the main underground specus of Aqua Virgo and its tributary channels, many of which are still unknown. The objectives are detecting and localising the underground feeder channels referring to the existing cartography of the area and to the airshafts visible on the surface. Once the conduits have been recorded using geophysical prospections, the further aim is to understand their dimensions, their constructive features, and their depth from the surface.

Ivan Ferrari, Francesco Giuri, Maurizio Lazzari
The Roman amphitheater of Venosa (Basilicata, southern Italy): 3D survey and reconstruction

The Roman amphitheater of Venosa (Potenza, southern Italy) is one of the experimental sites chosen as part of the IDEHA project (Innovation for Data Processing in Heritage Areas) in the Basilicata region, of which the CNR ISPC was scientific coordinator. This contribution presents the new results of the research more closely linked to the technical and constructive aspects of the monument, achieved starting from the instrumental survey performed with integrated techniques of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry. The metric data collected was integrated with those no longer visible that emerged during the archaeological excavation campaigns, which took place in 1841, 1925 and then in the 1980s and from a careful reconnaissance of the collapsed architectural elements present in situ. Despite the poor conditions of the wall structures, subject to centuries of abandonment and spoliations, it was possible to develop a reconstructive proposal for the amphitheater, with the creation of a three-dimensional model in which they critically merged all the collected data.

Annalisa Capurso, Lara De Giorgi, Ivan Ferrari, Francesco Giuri, Giovanni Leucci
Geophysical investigation at Castle of Canossa

Canossa Castle is located in a commune of Canossa 18 km (11 mi) South of Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia province of Italy. Canossa Castle was constructed in 940 by Adalberto Atto, son of Sigifredo of Lucca. Lombard chieftains needed this strategic hill to defend their lands against intrusions of other barbarian tribes. Subsequent improvements made the stronghold one of the best defended castles in the country. Canossa Castle became particularly famous as a site of reconciliation between king Henry IV and Roman pope Gregory VII during Investiture Controversy in 1077.
In order to planned excavations in the area close to the Castle geophysical surveys were undertaken in the spring of 2022. In this paper, the interesting results will be presented.

Lara De Giorgi, Dora Francesca Barbolla, Chiara Torre, Giovanni Leucci
Instability assessment of Grotta della Poesia (Lecce, Italy)

The instability of the hypogean archaeological site named Grotta della Poesia, was studied by combing geological and geophysical methods. The inside geometry of fractures and the physical parameters of the surrounding and underground materials were the primary objectives of the geophysical survey. 2D seismic tomography and 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were combined to make a first diagnosis. First seismic data were acquired along one horizontal profile delimited by the line of the sources inside the cave and the receiver lying on the ground surface. ERT profile was overlapped with the seismic profile but the electrodes were placed on the ground surface. The interpretation of integrated geophysical data resulted in evaluating some of the rock mass parameters such as the rock quality designation, linear fracture density and fracture density.

Salvatore Piro, Nicola M. Camerlenghi, Daniela Mondini, Giorgia Pollio, Daniela Zamuner
Ground Penetrating Radar survey at the Basilica of San Paolo fuori le mura (Roma, Italy)

This paper shows the results of a new archaeogeophysics investigation at the Basilica of San Paolo fuori le mura (Roma) carried out thanks to a collaboration between Dartmouth College (USA), the Institute of History and Theory of Art and Architecture of the Università della Svizzera Italiana, the Institute of Heritage Sciences of the CNR of Rome and the Governatorato of Vatican City. The new research includes high-resolution Ground Penetrating Radar surveys and bibliographic and archival analyses, still in progress, concerning the history of the development of building and its liturgical furnishings from the fourth century through modern times. The main purpose of this new study is to understand the evolution of the Basilica’s core, the area around the tomb of St. Paul, which across the centuries attracted attention from pilgrims, popes, and other potentates. The GPR profiles were processed with the aim to obtain a 2D time-slices images and 3D visualization (isosurface) of all reflections in the ground. The results obtained from the geophysical surveys were interpreted together with the archaeologists and historians to define the meaning of the individuated structures and to enhance the knowledge of this historical building.

Francesco Giuri, Angela Calia, Ivan Ferrari, Antonio Monte, Giovanni Quarta, Emilia Vasanelli
The Acait of Tricase (LE, Puglia, Italy): an agricultural cooperative for tobacco production. Surveys and conservation status

The tobacco industry in Puglia has been for about a century the main economic resource for the farmers and the dealers. The first processing with Levantine tobacco began in Terra d Otranto (the current provinces of Lecce, Brindisi and Taranto) between the late XIX and early XX centuries and were linked to the Agricultural Consortium of the Capo di Leuca territory (from 1938 Acait - Società Cooperativa Agricola Industriale del Capo di Leuca). Acait was the first cooperative agricultural consortium of the Terra d Otranto born in Tricase (Lecce, Italy) in December 1902. The Consortium began processing tobacco in 1904 and after a long and troubled history was put into liquidation in November 1995. In 2003 the municipality of Tricase acquired the historic factory, considered a monument of the industrial heritage of southern Italy, as a peculiar economic, social and human testimony of the territory. The paper illustrates the results of an ongoing study on the production site, which combines historical and archival research, an architectural survey campaign and a series of diagnostic analyses on the state of conservation, aimed at evaluating the main forms of alteration of the historic factory.

Lara De Giorgi, Ivan Ferrari, Francesco Giuri, Dora Francesca Barbolla, Chiara Torre, Giovanni Leucci
Electromagnetic survey at the messapian necropolis in Alezio (Lecce, Italy)

The Messapian necropolis of Monte D Elia is related to one of the most important ancient settlements in the Salento Peninsula (in south Italy). In order to understand the extension and layout of this necropolis in the various periods of its use, an electromagnetic prospection was undertaken in an area adjacent to the necropolis. The analysis of the electromagnetic data revealed many anomalies that could be ascribed to archaeological structures (tombs).

Lara De Giorgi, Dora Francesca Barbolla, Ivan Ferrari, Francesco Giuri, Ilaria Miccoli, Giuseppe Scardozzi, Chiara Torre, Giovanni Leucci
Geophysical investigation on the presumed Appian way

The Appian Way - Rome s gateway to the East - was Europe s first super highway and the wonder of its day. Built in 312 BC, it connected Rome with Capua (near Naples), running in a straight line for much of the way. Eventually, it stretched 644 km to Brindisi, from where Roman ships sailed to Greece and Egypt. With the aim of highlighting its route, geophysical surveys were carried out in some areas of southern Puglia. This paper deals with the results of an archaeogeophysical approach based on the comparative use of gradiometric and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements. The results of one investigated area are presented.

Daniel Lassak, Anna Novikova, Athanasios Argyriou, Nikos Papadopoulos
Satellite-Derived Bathymetry for the Islands of South-Eastern Crete

The study presents a semi-authomated model of bathymetry derivation from various satellite imageries (Pleiades, PlanetScope, and Sentinel 2-A) with different spatial resolutions, for two islands of the south-eastern Crete coast (Chrisi and Koufonisi). The workflow of the model is based on the empirical, band ratio approach and carried out within ESRI s ArcMap application. The highest accuracy that was achieved was an RMSE of 1.1 m for the bathymetry model from the PlanetScope image for Chrisi island. A low level of turbidity (low NDTI), high amount and reliability of depth training points, specific spectral characteristic (such as narrower bandwidths) and high spatial resolution provide a more precise bathymetry model for the studied islands.

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